25 November 2012

Saga of Errant Arctic Owls in Nebraska

A young owl only months old arrived at the Omaha riverfront and set off a
distinctive response of attention and care.

Snowy Owl at the CenturyLink Center Omaha, November 16th. Picture courtesy of Al Reyer.

The sojourn of this bird — born and raised in the northern wilds — brought it southward to along the Missouri River where it was observed by a someone interested in birds who was participating in a dog show.

A note was quickly posted online, with an immediate response on Friday, November 16th. Other birders soon arrived at the scene, with federal government employees appreciating their closer look through a birder's spotting scope at the obvious owl perched indifferently on the east side of the CenturyLink Center Omaha.

It was said to be a first-year female, according to birder's comments. Details were particular to the extent that the owl was seen regurgitating a pellet. This was interpreted as an indication it was doing okay, since it had been finding suitable prey.

The haps and mishaps of this bird were enough to provide details sufficient for local media to report, as personally indicated Saturday evening.

There were no other observations during the weekend, though the white owl was obviously still present on the north side of downtown.

Media reports started with the a.m. Monday newspaper, which gave the requisite details of the Friday occurrence, with a courtesy photograph.

Reporting continued, especially once this owl was put under a box in the parking lot at the hotel across the street to the west of the building where it was first sighted. This happened Monday, after the owl had been seen trying to traverse the perils of downtown — including urban streets and hurried traffic — within the downtown of the city.

What followed was a unique mix of events that caught the attention of many Omaha residents, through local media. Print articles appeared again, both on Tuesday and Wednesday. Two television stations provided reportage.

By midweek, the occurrence of this owl, and another which was injured elsewhere in Nebraska after being hit by a garbage truck, were also reported by a Lincoln newspaper.

The east Omaha owl was especially renowned, because of being seen in a populated urban setting, and then going through a quick transition from a wild existence to receiving interior care associated with efforts to ensure its survival. The bird had a weight of less than two pounds — compared to a 4-5 pound norm — when taken into intensive care, said Denise Lewis of the Omaha urban area, the education coordinator for Raptor Recovery Nebraska. She suitably took responsibility for the errant owl, providing essential liquid nutrients and a safe shelter to bring it back from the brink.

It was certainly a preferable alternative. Rather than having died at some unknown outdoor place, it had a hope for survival since it arrived because of its own unknown inclinations, where many things happened that were so beneficial for this particular Snowy Owl.

Media attention moderated with the arrival of the Thanksgiving holiday, and a greater focus on shopping.

The Omaha owl enjoyed on Thursday, its own unique meal. It was given bite-sized bits of rabbit leg. The meat — carefully cut into pieces of suitable size by care-giver Lewis — was provided during mid-afternoon. My personal effort of feeding with tweezers, was a vastly preferable alternative to watching something like football on television. The special owl sat placidly, and though squinty-eyed, did not hesitate in gulping down each morsel as presented one at a time. Its previous whole food had been pinky mice, and then others of the same sort, though larger.

Snowy Owl at facilities of Raptor Recovery Nebraska.

With a unique expression and presence, this owl of the Arctic wilds has taken on a special cognition. From a personal perspective, this owl is known by the name of Oma, though other moniker's bantered about included QT and Snowball.

Later on the so-called holiday, this feathered wonder was taken southward, to get additional care at the raptor-care headquarters, further south in Nebraska.
On the 24th, both snowy owl patients were doing better, said Betsy Finch, director of the raptor recovery group. "They are eating well, which is a good sign.

"I am cautiously optimistic for both owls," Finch said. Each has been assigned a number, since rehabilitation birds are not named.

With both snowy owls present, Finch said they are males, based upon a side-by-side comparison, and their notably smaller size.

"We are committed to give both owls the best care so they can be returned to the wild," Finch said.

As their condition would improve, they would be placed into a flight cage so as to regain the strength necessary for normal flight. There would then be an eventual release back into the wild, which would probably occur hundreds of miles northward.

"We appreciate people's concern" for raptors needing assistance, Finch said. "Don't assume it looks just fine, but call an expert" if there is some uncertainty.

"Everyone did the right thing," with these owls, she added.

The saga for these mysterious owls — especially the one associated with Omaha — is worthy of a book: Arctic owl flees northerly conditions to end up within a city-scape where a bird enthusiast reports its presence for many others to enjoy, and then due to its weak condition gets rescued — with the situation broadly reported — and then receives special care to help it survive so it may return to its native land in the great north tundra.

Evaluating Bird History Dependent on Newspapers

For a complete evaluation of bird history, newspapers of the bygone era are an essential resource to research.

Their value is indicated by the details derived from a recent, intensive effort, to extract bird records from newspapers published in northern America, primarily prior to 1885.

Results were beyond expectations, with a surprising number of species denoted for nearly every continental state, as well as from Canada.

Search Methods

The primary method to find records was the use of keyword searches at websites with electronic versions of historic newspapers. There are several, with a variety in their presentation which influences their access and functionality. Additional pay-for-access sites were not searched.

At the available e-archives, the following key words or text were search options used: ¶ auklet; ¶ bald eagle, or grey eagle, or headed eagle; ¶ barn owl; ¶ barn swallow; ¶ barred owl; ¶ billed curlew or long billed or sickle billed as a text string or word proximity search; ¶ bittern; ¶ black vulture; ¶ blue bird; ¶ blue crane; ¶ blue heron; ¶ blue jay; ¶ bobolink; ¶ brant flocks as a proximity search; ¶ brown pelican; ¶ brown thrush or thrasher; ¶ bunting; ¶ butcher bird or loggerhead shrike; ¶ calico back; ¶ canvasback or canvas back; ¶ cardinal bird or red bird; ¶ cat-bird; ¶ cedar bird or cherry bird; ¶ chickadee; ¶ chimney swallow; ¶ chimney swift; ¶ common crow; ¶ cormorant; ¶ cowbird; ¶ crossbill; ¶ crow blackbird or grackle or jackdaw; ¶ crowned kinglet; ¶ curlew; ¶ didapper; ¶ dough bird or doe bird; ¶ dove hunt or doves killed in a word proximity search; ¶ duck hawk; ¶ duck hunt; ¶ ducks killed; ¶ dunlin; ¶ eave swallow; ¶ egret; ¶ esquimaux curlew or eskimo curlew or short-billed curlew; ¶ falcon; ¶ fish hawk or osprey; ¶ flicker or yellowhammer; ¶ flight myriads or large flocks or immense flocks or immense flight as terms with ten words of each; ¶ flycatcher; ¶ for the passenger pigeon, used the terms pidgeons, wood pigeon, wild pigeons and pigeon roost terms; ¶ gadwall; ¶ game hunt or game taken; ¶ godwit; ¶ golden eagle; ¶ goldfinch or thistle bird; ¶ gray owl or grey owl; ¶ great auk or penguin; ¶ grosbeak; ¶ ground dove; ¶ grouse; ¶ hangnest or oriole; ¶ headed woodpecker; ¶ horned owl; ¶ house martin; ¶ house swallow; ¶ house wren; ¶ hummingbird; ¶ ibis; ¶ indigo bird; ¶ kildee or killdeer; ¶ kingfisher; ¶ mallard; ¶ martin swallow; ¶ meadowlark or meadow lark; ¶ mockingbird; ¶ nonpariel; ¶ northern shrike; ¶ nuthatch or breasted nuthatch; ¶ ovenbird or crowned thrush; ¶ paroquet or parakeet; ¶ partridge; ¶ petrel; ¶ pheasant; ¶ phoebe bird; ¶ pigeon hawk; ¶ plover; ¶ prairie chicken or prairie hen; ¶ prairie owl; ¶ puffin; ¶ quail; ¶ rail bird; ¶ raven; ¶ redhead duck or red head duck; ¶ reed bird; ¶ robin snipe; ¶ robin song; ¶ ruffed grouse; ¶ sage hen or grouse; ¶ sand hill crane or sand-hill crane; ¶ sandpiper; ¶ scoter; ¶ screech owl; ¶ snipe hunt or shot snipe: words in close proximity; ¶ snipe hunt (often with resultant stories of hilarity); ¶ snow geese; ¶ snow owl or white owl or Arctic owl, using these particular terms, or as also in close proximity; ¶ song sparrow; ¶ sparrow hawk or kestrel; ¶ summer duck or wood duck; ¶ summer warbler; ¶ tip wings: in close proximity; ¶ trumpeter swan; ¶ turkey buzzard; ¶ upland plover; ¶ warbler; ¶ whip-poor-will with and without dashes; ¶ white crane; ¶ white geese; ¶ white heron; ¶ white pelican; ¶ white swan; ¶ whooper; ¶ widgeon; ¶ wild geese flocks or wild geese killed; ¶ wild turkey, as a particular string of the two words, along with turkey flocks killed: terms within a ten word proximity; ¶ winged teal as a text string; ¶ wings measured as a text string or proximity search; ¶ winter wren; ¶ wood grouse; ¶ wood pewee; ¶ wood stork; ¶ woodcock; ¶ yellowlegs.

There was also, in a few instances, a recurring presentation of a birdly topic, which could be located by browsing through a series of issues.

Bird History from Newspapers of Past Times

Results were dependent upon the accuracy of character recognition for the scanned newspaper pages. Also, some of the archival sites had less than adequate search options, sometimes resulting in over-whelming results impossible to filter to any particular focus. Some search options were nearly useless, or to a limited extent, not even available. Despite these limitations the extent of records found was significant. These results are obviously biased to the eastern states of the U.S.A., as their extent of newspaper publication was much more prevalent in the period prior to 1885.

More than 2880 articles were found during this effort, from more than 700 different newspapers, representing a wide perspective of history among the united states, and Canada. This is a list of the papers and where they were issued:

  1. Abilene Reflector - Abilene, Dickinson County, Kansas
  2. Ackley Enterprise - Ackley, Iowa
  3. Adams Herald - Adams, Jefferson County, New York
  4. Alamosa Journal - Alamosa, Alamosa County, Colorado
  5. Albany Argus - Albany, New York
  6. Albany Centinel - Albany, Albany County, New York
  7. Albany Evening Journal - Albany, Albany County, New York
  8. Albany Patriot - Albany, Dougherty County, Georgia
  9. Albert Lea Freeborn County Standard - Albert Lea, Minnesota
  10. Alden Times - Alden, Hardin County, Iowa
  11. Alexandria Advertiser - Alexandria, Virginia
  12. Alexandria Gazette - Alexandria, Virginia
  13. Algona Upper Des Moines - Algona, Iowa
  14. Alton Courier - Alton, Madison County, Illinois
  15. Alton Observer - Alton, Illinois
  16. Alton Review - Alton, Sioux County, Iowa
  17. Alton Telegraph - Alton, Madison County, Illinois
  18. Altoona Tribune - Altoona, Blair County, Pennsylvania
  19. Amenia Times - Amenia Times, Dutchess County, New York
  20. American Beacon - Norfolk, Virginia
  21. American Citizen - New York, New York
  22. American Mercury - Hartford, Connecticut
  23. Americus Recorder - Americus, Sumter County, Georgia
  24. Amsterdam Democrat and Recorder - Amsterdam, New York
  25. Anderson Intelligencer - Anderson Court House, South Carolina
  26. Andrew County Republican - Savannah, Missouri
  27. Anita Times - Anita, Cass County, Iowa
  28. Appleton Motor - Appleton, Outagamie County, Wisconsin
  29. Appleton Post Crescent - Appleton, Outagamie County, Wisconsin
  30. Arizona Citizen - Tucson, Pima County, Arizona
  31. Arkansas Gazette - Little Rock, Arkansas
  32. Ashtabula Telegraph - Ashtabula, Ashtabula County, Ohio
  33. Astorian - Astoria, Oregon
  34. Atchison Globe - Atchison, Atchison County, Kansas
  35. Athens Banner - Athens, Georgia
  36. Athens Banner-Watchman - Athens, Georgia
  37. Athens Georgian - Athens, Georgia
  38. Athens Messenger - Athens, Georgia
  39. Atlanta Constitution - Atlanta, Georgia
  40. Atlanta Herald - Atlanta, Georgia
  41. Atlanta Intelligencer - Atlanta, Georgia
  42. Atlanta Opinion - Atlanta, Georgia
  43. Atlanta Sun - Atlanta, Georgia
  44. Atlantic Telegraph - Atlantic, Iowa
  45. Auburn Bulletin - Auburn, New York
  46. Auburn Christian Advocate - Auburn, New York
  47. Auburn Journal - Auburn, New York
  48. Auburn News - Auburn, New York
  49. Auburn News and Democrat - Auburn, New York
  50. Austin Intelligencer-Echo - Austin, Texas
  51. Austin State Gazette - Austin, Texas
  52. Baldwinsville Gazette - Baldwinsville, Onondago County, New York
  53. Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser - Baltimore, Maryland
  54. Baltimore Patriot - Baltimore, Maryland
  55. Bangor Whig and Courier - Bangor, Maine
  56. Bar Harbor Mount Desert Herald - Bar Harbor, Maine
  57. Barnstable Patriot - Barnstable, Barnstable County,
  58. Barre Gazette - Barre, Massachusetts
  59. Barre Patriot - Barre, Massachusetts
  60. Batavia News - Batavia, New York
  61. Batavia Spirit of the Times - Batavia, New York
  62. Bates County Record - Butler, Missouri
  63. Bath Independent - Bath, Sagadahoc County, Maine
  64. Beaver Dam Democrat - Beaver Dam, Wisconsin
  65. Bedford Star - Bedford, Lawrence County, Indiana
  66. Belleville Telescope - Belleville, Republic County, Kansas
  67. Belmont Chronicle - Saint Clairsville, Ohio
  68. Belmont Genesee Valley Post - Belmont, Allegany County, New York
  69. Biddeford Journal - Biddeford, York County, Maine
  70. Binghamton Broome Republican - Binghamton, New York
  71. Birmingham Iron Age - Birmingham, Alabama
  72. Bismarck Tribune - Bismarck, North Dakota
  73. Black Hawk Mining Journal - Black Hawk, Colorado
  74. Bloomsburg Columbian - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  75. Bloomville Mirror - Bloomville, Delaware County, New York
  76. Bolivar Free Press - Bolivar, Polk County, Missouri
  77. Boon's Lick Times - Fayette, Missouri
  78. Boston Advertiser - Boston, Massachusetts
  79. Boston Commercial Gazette - Boston, Massachusetts
  80. Boston Evening-Post - Boston, Massachusetts
  81. Boston Globe - Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts
  82. Boston Intelligencer - Boston, Massachusetts
  83. Boston Messenger - Boston, Massachusetts
  84. Boston News-Letter - Boston, Massachusetts
  85. Boston Post Boy - Boston, Massachusetts
  86. Boston Recorder - Boston, Massachusetts
  87. Boulder County Courier - Boulder, Boulder County, Colorado
  88. Bourbon News - Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky
  89. Brattleboro Eagle - Brattleboro, Vermont
  90. Brattleboro Reporter - Brattleboro, Vermont
  91. Brenham Banner - Brenham, Washington County, Texas
  92. Bristol Bucks County Gazette - Bristol, Bucks County, Pennsylvania
  93. Brockport Republic - Brockport, Monroe County, New York
  94. Brooklyn Eagle - Brooklyn, New York
  95. Brownstown Banner - Brownstown, Indiana
  96. Buffalo Courier - Buffalo, New York
  97. Buffalo Courier and Republic - Buffalo, New York
  98. Buffalo Express - Buffalo, New York
  99. Buffalo Reflex - Buffalo, Missouri
  100. Burlington Advertiser - Burlington, New Jersey
  101. Burlington Free Press - Burlington, Vermont
  102. Burlington Hawk Eye - Burlington, Iowa
  103. Cairo Bulletin - Cairo, Illinois
  104. California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences - San Francisco, California
  105. Cambridge City Tribune - Cambridge City, Wayne County, Indiana
  106. Camden Democrat - Camden, New Jersey
  107. Cape Girardeau Weekly Argus - Cape Girardeau, Missouri
  108. Carbon Advocate - Lehighton, Pennsylvania
  109. Carolina Watchman - Salisbury, Rowan County, South Carolina
  110. Carroll Sentinel - Carroll, Carroll County, Iowa
  111. Catawba Journal - Charlotte, North Carolina
  112. Catskill Recorder - Catskill, New York
  113. Cayuga Chief - Auburn, New York
  114. Cayuga County Independent - Auburn, New York
  115. Cedar Falls Gazette - Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, Iowa
  116. Cedar Rapids Gazette - Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  117. Cedar Rapids Times - Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  118. Cedar Valley Times - Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  119. Centerville Appanoose Times - Centerville, Appanoose County, Iowa
  120. Central City Evening Call - Central City, Colorado
  121. Central City Register - Central City, Gilpin County, Colorado
  122. Central City Register-Call - Central City, Gilpin County, Colorado
  123. Chaffee County Times - Buena Vista, Chaffee County, Colorado
  124. Charleston Courier - Charleston, Mississippi County, Missouri
  125. Charleston News - Charleston, South Carolina
  126. Chatham Courier - Chatham, New York
  127. Chatham Monitor - Chatham, Barnstable County, Massachusetts
  128. Cherokee Advocate - Tahlequah, Oklahoma
  129. Cherry Valley Gazette - Cherry Valley, Otsego County, New York
  130. Chester Times - Chester, Delaware County, Pennsylvania
  131. Chittenango Herald - Chittenango, Madison County, New York
  132. Cincinnati Press - Cincinnati, Ohio
  133. City Gazette and Daily Advertiser - Charleston, South Carolina
  134. Clarksville Standard - Clarksville, Texas
  135. Clearfield Democratic Banner - Clearfield, Pennsylvania
  136. Cleveland Leader - Cleveland, Ohio
  137. Colfax Chronicle - Colfax, Grant Parish, Louisiana
  138. Colorado Banner - Boulder, Boulder County, Colorado
  139. Colorado Chieftain - Pueblo, Pueblo County, Colorado
  140. Colorado Citizen - Columbus, Texas
  141. Colorado Springs Gazette and El Paso County News - Colorado Springs, Colorado
  142. Colorado Transcript - Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado
  143. Columbia Democrat - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  144. Columbia Democrat and Bloomsburg General Advertiser - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  145. Columbia Herald - Columbia, Tennessee
  146. Columbia Phoenix - Columbia, South Carolina
  147. Columbian [New York] - New York, New York
  148. Columbian [Pennsylvania] - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  149. Columbian and Democrat - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  150. Columbian Centinel - Boston, Massachusetts
  151. Columbus Enquirer - Columbus, Georgia
  152. Columbus Enquirer-Sun - Columbus, Georgia
  153. Columbus Journal - Columbus, Platte County, Nebraska
  154. Columbus Sun and Enquirer - Columbus, Georgia
  155. Connecticut Courant - Hartford, Connecticut
  156. Connecticut Herald - New Haven, Connecticut
  157. Connecticut Journal - New Haven, Connecticut
  158. Connecticut Mirror - Hartford, Connecticut
  159. Connersville Examiner - Connersville, Fayette County, Indiana
  160. Connersville Times - Connersville, Fayette County, Indiana
  161. Corning Journal - Corning, New York
  162. Coshocton Democrat - Coshocton, Ohio
  163. County Paper - Oregon, Missouri
  164. Crown Point Register - Crown Point, Indiana
  165. Cuba Evening Review - Cuba, Allegany County, New York
  166. Cuba True Patriot - Cuba, New York
  167. Daily Alta California - San Francisco, California
  168. Daily Astorian - Astoria, Oregon
  169. Daily Derrick - Oil City, Pennsylvania
  170. Daily Free Democrat - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  171. Daily Iowa Capital - Des Moines, Iowa
  172. Daily Phoenix - Columbia, South Carolina
  173. Daily State Journal - Richmond, Virginia
  174. Dansville Advertiser - Dansville, Livingston County, New York
  175. Danville Hendricks County Republican 1887 - Danville, Hendricks County, Indiana
  176. Danville Hendricks County Union - Danville, Hendricks County, Indiana
  177. Davenport Gazette - Davenport, Iowa
  178. Dawsons Fort Wayne Tribune - Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana
  179. Decatur Republican - Decatur, Iowa
  180. Decatur Review - Decatur, Macon County, Illinois
  181. Dedham Village Register - Dedham, Massachusetts
  182. Delaware Advertiser and Farmers Journal - Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware
  183. Delphi Times - Delphi, Carroll County, Indiana
  184. Denton Journal - Denton, Caroline County, Maryland
  185. DeRuyter New Era-Gleaner - DeRuyter, Madison County, New York
  186. Des Moines Republican - Des Moines, Iowa
  187. Deseret News - Salt Lake City, Utah
  188. Dodge City Times - Dodge City, Ford County, Kansas
  189. Doniphan Prospect - Doniphan, Missouri
  190. Dublin Post - Dublin, Georgia
  191. Dubuque Herald - Dubuque, Iowa
  192. Dubuque Times - Dubuque, Iowa
  193. Dunkirk Observer - Dunkirk, Chautauqua County, New York
  194. Eastern Argus - Portland, Maine
  195. Eau Claire Free Press - Eau Claire, Eau Claire County, Wisconsin
  196. Eau Claire News - Eau Claire, Eau Claire County, Wisconsin
  197. Edwardsville Intelligencer - Edwardsville, Illinois
  198. Elk Advocate - Ridgway, Elk County, Pennsylvania
  199. Elk County Advocate - Ridgway, Elk County, Pennsylvania
  200. Elkhart Democratic Union - Elkhart, Elkhart County, Indiana
  201. Elkhart Monitor - Elkhart, Elkhart County, Indiana
  202. Elkhart Observer - Elkhart, Elkhart County, Indiana
  203. Elyria Constitution - Elyria, Lorain County, Ohio
  204. Elyria Courier - Elyria, Lorain County, Ohio
  205. Elyria Independent Democrat - Elyria, Lorain County, Ohio
  206. Emmetsburg Palo Alto Pilot - Emmetsburg, Palo Alto County, Iowa
  207. Erie County Independent - Buffalo and Hamburg, Erie County, New York
  208. Essex County Republican - Keeseville, New York
  209. Evening Gazette - Port Jervis, New York
  210. Evening Mirror - Altoona, Pennsylvania
  211. Evergreen City Times - Sheboygan, Wisconsin
  212. Fair Play - Saint Genevieve
  213. Fairport Herald - Fairport, Monroe County, New York
  214. Farmer's Cabinet - Amherst, New Hampshire
  215. Farmer's Gazette - Sparta, Georgia
  216. Fayetteville Observer - Fayetteville, North Carolina
  217. Federal Gazette, and Philadelphia Evening Post - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  218. Federal Union - Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia
  219. Forest Republican - Crandon, Wisconsin
  220. Fort Collins Courier - Fort Collins, Colorado
  221. Fort Collins Standard - Fort Collins, Colorado
  222. Fort Morgan Times - Fort Morgan, Weld County, Colorado
  223. Fort Smith Elevator - Fort Smith, Arkansas
  224. Fort Wayne Democrat - Fort Wayne, Indiana
  225. Fort Wayne Gazette - Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana
  226. Fort Wayne Sentinel - Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana
  227. Fort Worth Gazette - Fort Worth, Texas
  228. Frankfort Roundabout - Frankfort, Kentucky
  229. Franklin Gazette - Malone, New York
  230. Franklin Repository - Franklin County, Pennsylvania
  231. Frederick News - Frederick, Maryland
  232. Fredonia Censor - Fredonia, New York
  233. Freeport Bulletin - Freeport, Stephenson County, Illinois
  234. Fremont Journal - Fremont, Sandusky County, Ohio
  235. Gallipolis Journal - Gallipolis, Ohio
  236. Galveston Civilian - Galveston, Texas
  237. Galveston Civilian and Gazette - Galveston, Texas
  238. Galveston News - Galveston, Texas
  239. General Advertiser and Political, Commercial, - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  240. Geneseo Democrat - Geneseo, New York
  241. Geneva Advertiser - Geneva, New York
  242. Geneva Courier - Geneva, New York
  243. Geneva Express - Geneva, New York
  244. Geneva Gazette - Geneva, New York
  245. Georgetown Courier - Georgetown, Clear Creek County, Colorado
  246. Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Georgia Journal and - Macon, Georgia
  247. Gettysburg Complier - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  248. Gettysburg Republican - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  249. Gettysburg Republican Complier - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  250. Gettysburg Star - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  251. Gettysburg Star and Sentinel - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  252. Glasgow Times - Glasgow, Missouri
  253. Glenwood Opinion - Glenwood, Iowa
  254. Gloversville Intelligencer - Gloversville, New York
  255. Golden Era - San Francisco, California
  256. Grand Traverse Herald - Traverse City, Grand Traverse County, Michigan
  257. Grant County Herald - Lancaster, Grant County, Wisconsin
  258. Gravesville Calumet Republican - Gravesville, Calumet County, Wisconsin
  259. Green Bay Republican - Green Bay, Wisconsin
  260. Greenville Advance - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  261. Greenville Advance Argus - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  262. Greenville Argus - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  263. Greenville Shenango Valley Argus - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  264. Hagerstown Herald and Torch Light - Hagerstown, Maryland
  265. Hagerstown Mail - Hagerstown, Maryland
  266. Hagerstown Torch Light and Public Advertiser - Hagerstown, Maryland
  267. Hannibal Clipper - Hannibal, Missouri
  268. Hannibal Journal - Hannibal, Marion County, Missouri
  269. Harrisonburg Rockingham Register - Harrisonburg, Rockingham County,
  270. Hartford Herald - Hartford, Kentucky
  271. Haverhill Gazette - Haverhill, Massachusetts
  272. Hawarden Independent - Calliope, Sioux County, Iowa
  273. Hickman Courier - Hickman, Fulton County, Kentucky
  274. Highland Messenger - Asheville, North Carolina
  275. Highland News - Hillsborough [Hillsboro], Highland
  276. Hillsboro News-Herald - Hillsboro, Hghland County, Ohio
  277. Hillsdale Standard - Hillsdale, Michigan
  278. Holmes County Farmer - Millersburg, Ohio
  279. Holmes County Republican - Millersburg, Holmes County, Ohio
  280. Holt County Sentinel - Oregon, Holt County, Missouri
  281. Houston Mercury - Houston, Texas
  282. Houston Telegraph and Texas Register - Houston, Texas
  283. Howarden Independent - East Orange, and Calliope, Sioux County,
  284. Hudson Evening Register - Hudson, N.Y.
  285. Hudson North Star - Hudson, St. Croix County, Wisconsin
  286. Hudson River Chronicle - Sing-Sing, Westchester County, New York
  287. Huntingdon Journal - Huntingdon, Pennsylvania
  288. Huntington Long Islander - Huntington, Suffolk County, New York
  289. Huron Reflector - Norwalk, Ohio
  290. Hyde Park Herald - Hyde Park, Illinois
  291. Independent American - Platteville, Wisconsin
  292. Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot - Boston, Massachusetts
  293. Indian Chieftain - Vinita, Craig County, Oklahoma
  294. Indiana Democrat - Indiana, Pennsylvania
  295. Indiana Messenger - Indiana, Indiana County, Pennsylvania
  296. Indiana Progress - Indiana, Indiana County, Pennsylvania
  297. Interior Journal - Stanford, Kentucky
  298. Iola Register - Iola, Kansas
  299. Iowa South West - Bedford, Iowa
  300. Iowa State Register - Des Moines, Iowa
  301. Iowa State Reporter - Waterloo, Black County, Iowa
  302. Ithaca Journal - Ithaca, New York
  303. Jackson Missouri Cash-Book - Jackson, Missouri
  304. Jackson Sentinel - Maquoketa, Iowa
  305. Janesville Democrat - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  306. Janesville Democratic Standard - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  307. Janesville Gazette - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  308. Janesville Gazette and Free Press - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  309. Jefferson Bee - Jefferson, Iowa
  310. Jefferson City Peoples Tribune - Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri
  311. Jefferson City State Journal - Jefferson City, Missouri
  312. Jefferson County Journal - Adams, New York
  313. Jeffersonian - Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
  314. Jeffersonian Republican - Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
  315. Jeffersonville Evening News - Jeffersonville, Clark County, Indiana
  316. Jeffersonville National Democrat - Jeffersonville, Clark County, Indiana
  317. Jeffersonville News - Jeffersonville, Clark County, Indiana
  318. Jones County Liberal - Monticello, Jones County, Iowa
  319. Journal and American - Huntingdon, Pennsylvania
  320. Juniata Sentinel - Mifflintown, Pennsylvania
  321. Kalamazoo Telegraph - Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo County, Michigan
  322. Kane Leader - Kane, McKean County, Pennsylvania
  323. Kane Weekly Blade - Kane, McKean County, Pennsylvania
  324. Kansas City Journal of Commerce - Kansas City, Missouri
  325. Kenosha Democrat - Kenosha, Wisconsin
  326. Kenosha Telegraph - Kenosha, Wisconsin
  327. Keowee Courier - Walhalla, South Carolina
  328. Keystone Courier - Connellsville, Pennsylvania
  329. Kingston Freeman - Kingston, Ulster County, New York
  330. Kirksville Graphic - Kirksville, Adair County, Missouri
  331. Knoxville Chronicle - Knoxville, Tennessee
  332. Lancaster Examiner and Herald - Lancaster, Pennsylvania
  333. Lancaster Intelligencer - Lancaster, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
  334. Laramie Sentinel - Laramie, Wyoming
  335. Lawrence Gazette - Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas
  336. Lawrence Journal World - Lawrence, Kansas
  337. Lawrence Republican - Lawrence, Kansas
  338. Lawrence Western Home Journal 1874 - Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas
  339. Le Mars Iowa Liberal - Le Mars, Plymouth County, Iowa
  340. Le Mars Sentinel - Le Mars, Plymouth County, Iowa
  341. Leavenworth Times - Leavenworth, Kansas
  342. Lebanon News - Lebanon, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania
  343. Lehigh Register - Allentown, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania
  344. Liberty Tribune - Liberty, Missouri
  345. Lincoln County Herald - Troy, Missouri
  346. Litchburg Sentinel - Litchburg, Massachusetts
  347. Litchfield Monitor - Litchfield, Connecticut
  348. Little Falls Journal and Courier - Little Falls, Herkimer County, New York
  349. Little Falls Mohawk Courier - Little Falls, New York
  350. Livermore Herald - Livermore, Alameda County, California
  351. Livingston Republican - Geneseo, New York
  352. Lockport Journal and Courier - Lockport, Niagara County, New York
  353. Lodi Freeman and Messenger - Lodi, Cattaraugus County, New York
  354. Logansport Chronicle - Logansport, Indiana
  355. Logansport Journal - Logansport, Cass County, Indiana
  356. Logansport News - Logansport, Indiana
  357. Logansport Pharos Tribune - Logansport, Hamilton County, Illinois
  358. Logansport Star - Logansport, Indiana
  359. Long-Island Farmer - Jamaica, New York
  360. Los Angeles Herald - Los Angeles, California
  361. Louisiana Capitalian - Louisiana
  362. Louisiana Democrat - Alexandria, Louisiana
  363. Lowell Courier - Lowell, Massachusetts
  364. Lowell Journal and Courier - Lowell, Massachusetts
  365. Lowville Journal and Republican - Lowville, Lewis County, New York
  366. Loyal Missourian - California, Moniteau County, Missouri
  367. Lyons Wayne Democratic Press - Lyons, New York
  368. Macon Daily Telegraph - Macon, Georgia
  369. Macon Telegraph and Messenger - Macon, Georgia
  370. Madison Democrat - Madison, Wisconsin
  371. Madison Express - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  372. Madison Observer - Morrisville, Madison County, New York
  373. Madison State Journal - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  374. Madison Wisconsin Argus - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  375. Madison Wisconsin Patriot - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  376. Malone Frontier Palladium - Malone, Franklin County, New York
  377. Malvern Leader - Malvern, Mills County, Iowa
  378. Manitoba Free Press - Manitoba, Canada
  379. Manitoba Liberal - Winnipeg, Manitoba
  380. Manitoba News-Letter - Winnipeg, Manitoba
  381. Manitowoc Tribune - Manitowoc, Wisconsin
  382. Marietta Register - Mariette, Georgia
  383. Marion Herald - Marion, Linn County, Iowa
  384. Marshall Democrat - Marshall, Missouri
  385. Marshall Democratic Expounder - Marshall, Michigan
  386. Marshfield Coast Mail - Marshfield, Oregon
  387. Martinsville Morgan County Gazette - Martinsville, Morgan County, Indiana
  388. Massachusetts Spy - Boston, Massachusetts
  389. McConnelsville Conservative - Salem, Ohio
  390. Medina Register - Medina, New York
  391. Memphis Appeal - Memphis, Tennessee
  392. Mexico Independent - Mexico, New York
  393. Middleburgh Post - Middleburgh, Snyder County, Pennsylvania
  394. Middlesex Gazette - Middletown, Connecticut
  395. Milan Exchange - Milan, Gibson County, Tennessee
  396. Milledgeville Union and Recorder - Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia
  397. Milwaukee Evening Courier - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  398. Milwaukee Free Democrat - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  399. Milwaukee News - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  400. Milwaukee Sentinel - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  401. Milwaukee Sentinel and Gazette - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  402. Milwaukee Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  403. Missouri Patriot - Springfield, Missouri
  404. Missouri Republican - St. Louis, Missouri
  405. Missouri State Times - Jefferson City, Missouri
  406. Moniteau Journal - California, Missouri
  407. Monmouth Collegian - Monmouth College, Warren County, Illinois
  408. Montana Post - Virginia City, Montana
  409. Monticello Express - Monticello, Jones County, Iowa
  410. Morning Oregonian - Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon
  411. Morrisville Madison Observer - Morrisville, New York
  412. Mount Carmel Register - Mount Carmel, Illinois
  413. Mount Morris Union - Mount Morris, Livingston County, New
  414. Mount Vernon Fountain and Journal - Mt. Vernon, Lawrence County, Missouri
  415. Mourning Courier and New-York Enquirer - New York, New York
  416. Muskogee Indian Journal - Muskogee, Oklahoma
  417. Naples Record - Naples, Ontario County, New York
  418. Nashville Union and American - Nashville, Tennessee
  419. National Intelligencer - Washington, District of Columbia
  420. National Republican - Washington, District of Columbia
  421. Native Virginian - Orange Court House, Virginia
  422. Neapolitan Record - Naples, New York
  423. Nebraska Advertiser - Brownville, Nemaha County, Nebraska
  424. Nebraska State Journal - Lincoln, Nebraska
  425. Neosho Times - Neosho, Missouri
  426. Neosho Valley Register - Iola, Allen County, Kansas
  427. Nevada State Journal - Reno, Washoe County, Nevada
  428. New Albany Ledger - New Albany, Floyd County, Indiana
  429. New Albany Register - New Albany, Floyd County, Indiana
  430. New Albany Tribune - New Albany, Floyd County, Indiana
  431. New Bedford Mercury - New Bedford, Massachusetts
  432. New Brunswick Times - New Brunswick, Middlesex County, New
  433. New Hampshire Gazette - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  434. New Hampshire Patriot - Concord, New Hampshire
  435. New Hampshire Sentinel - Keene, New Hampshire
  436. New Hampshire Spy - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  437. New Haven Gazette - New Haven, Connecticut
  438. New Holland Clarion - New Holland, Pennsylvania
  439. New Orleans Crescent - New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana
  440. New Philadelphia Democrat - New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas County, Ohio
  441. New South - Port Royal, South Carolina
  442. New Ulm Review - New Ulm, Brown County, Minnesota
  443. New York Advertiser - New York, New York
  444. New York American for the Country - New York, New York
  445. New York Clipper - New York, New York
  446. New York Commercial Advertiser - New York, New York
  447. New York Evening Express - New York, New York
  448. New York Evening Mirror - New York, New York
  449. New York Evening Post - New York, New York
  450. New York Evening Telegram - New York, New York
  451. New York Gazette - New York, New York
  452. New York Graphic - New York, New York
  453. New York Herald - New York, New York
  454. New York Mercantile Advertiser - New York, New York
  455. New York Mercury - New York, New York
  456. New York New World - New York, New York
  457. New York Spectator - New York, New York
  458. New York Sun - New York, New York
  459. New York Telegram - New York, New York
  460. New York Times - New York, New York
  461. New York Tribune - New York, New York
  462. New York World - New York, New York
  463. New-England Galaxy - Boston, Massachusetts
  464. New-England Journal - Boston, Mass.
  465. New-Hampshire Gazette and Historical Chronicle - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  466. New-Hampshire Patriot - Concord, New Hampshire
  467. New-York Journal - New York City, New York
  468. New-York Spectator - New York, New York
  469. Newbern Sentinel - New Bern, North Carolina
  470. Newburgh News - Newburgh, New York
  471. Newburyport Herald - Newburyport, Massachusetts
  472. Newport Hossier State - Newport, Vermillion County, Indiana
  473. Newport Journal - Newport, Rhode Island
  474. Newport News - Newport, Rhode Island
  475. Newtown Register - Newtown, Long Island, New York
  476. Niagara Falls Gazette - Niagara Falls, Niagara County, New York
  477. North Carolina Whig - Charlotte, North Carolina
  478. North Nebraska Eagle - Dakota City, Nebraska
  479. Northern Vindicator - Estherville, Emmet County, Iowa
  480. Norwich Courier - Norwich, Connecticut
  481. Ogdensburgh Journal - Ogdensburg, New York
  482. Ogdensburgh Sentinel - Ogdensburg, New York
  483. Olney Times - Olney, Richland County, Illinois
  484. Omaha Arrow - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  485. Omaha Bee - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  486. Omaha Herald - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  487. Omaha Nebraskian - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  488. Omaha Republican - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  489. Omaha Tribune - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  490. Omaha World-Herald - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  491. Oneida Morning Herald - Utica, New York
  492. Oneida Sachem - Oneida, Madison County, New York
  493. Orangeburg Times and Democrat - Orangeburg, South Carolina
  494. Oregon County Paper - Oregon, Missouri
  495. Oshkosh Courier - Oshkosh, Winnebago County, Wisconsin
  496. Oshkosh Northwestern - Oshkosh, Wisconsin
  497. Oskaloosa Independent - Oskaloosa, Kansas
  498. Oswego Commercial Times - Oswego, New York
  499. Oswego Palladium - Oswego, Oneida County, New York
  500. Oswego Press - Oswego, Oneida County, New York
  501. Oswego Times and Express - Oswego, Oneida County, New York
  502. Otsego Farmer - Cooperstown, New York
  503. Otsego Herald - Cooperstown, New York
  504. Otsego Union - Otsego, Allegan County, Michigan
  505. Ouachita Telegraph - Monroe, Louisiana
  506. Pacific Rural Press - San Francisco, California
  507. Painesville Telegraph - Painesville, Lake County, Ohio
  508. Palo Alto Recorder - Emmetsburg, Palo Alto County, Iowa
  509. Pennsylvania Gazette - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  510. Pennsylvania Mercury and Universal Advertiser - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  511. People's Vindicator - Natchitoches, Louisiana
  512. Perrysburg Journal - Perrysburg, Ohio
  513. Petersburg Index and Appeal - Petersburg, Virginia
  514. Phelps County New Era - Rolla, Missouri
  515. Philadelphia Evening Bulletin - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  516. Philadelphia Evening Telegraph - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  517. Philadelphia Gazette of the United States - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  518. Philadelphia Press - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  519. Pine Plains Register - Pine Plains, New York
  520. Piqua Miami Helmet - Piqua, Miami County, Ohio
  521. Pittsburgh Morning Post - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  522. Pittsfield Sun - Pittsfield, Massachusetts
  523. Plattsburgh Republican - Plattsburgh, Clinton County, New York
  524. Plymouth Journal - Plymouth, Massachusetts
  525. Port Jervis Evening Gazette - Port Jervis, New York
  526. Portage la Prairie Tribune-Review - Portage la Prairie, Manitoba
  527. Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  528. Portsmouth Times - Portsmouth, Ohio
  529. Postville Review - Postville, Allamakee County, Iowa
  530. Poughkeepsie Daily Eagle - Poughkeepsie, New York
  531. Poulson's American Advertiser - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  532. Prescott Transcript - Prescott, Pierce County, Wisconsin
  533. Princeton Union - Princeton, Mille Lacs County, Minnesota
  534. Progressive Batavian - Batavia, Genesee County, New York
  535. Providence Gazette - Providence, Rhode Island
  536. Providence Patriot - Providence, Rhode Island
  537. Providence Post - Providence, Rhode Island
  538. Pulaski Democrat - Pulaski, New York
  539. Putnam County Courier - Carmel, New York
  540. Quincy Herald - Quincy, Illinois
  541. Quincy Journal - Quincy, Illinois
  542. Quincy Whig - Quincy, Illinois
  543. Quincy Whig and Republican - Quincy, Illinois
  544. Racine Argus - Racine, Wisconsin
  545. Racine County Argus - Racine County, Wisconsin
  546. Racine Journal - Racine, Racine County, Wisconsin
  547. Racine Morning Advocate - Racine, Wisconsin
  548. Racine News - Racine, Wisconsin
  549. Randolph Weekly Wanderer - Randolph, Orange County, Vermont
  550. Red Bank Register - Red Bank, Monmouth County, New Jersey
  551. Red Cloud Chief - Red Cloud, Webster County, Nebraska
  552. Red Wing Grange Advance - Red Wing, Goodhue County, Minnesota
  553. Red Wing Sentinel - Red Wing, Goodhue County, Minnesota
  554. Reese River Reveille - Austin, Nevada
  555. Reno Evening Gazette - Reno, Washoe County, Nevada
  556. Republican Compiler - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  557. Republican Star - Easton, Maryland
  558. Rhode Island American - Providence, Rhode Island
  559. Rhode Island Gazette - Newport, Rhode Island
  560. Rhode Island Republican - Newport, Rhode Island
  561. Richland County Observer - Richland Center, Richland County, Wisconsin
  562. Richmond Democrat - Richmond, Ray County, Missouri
  563. Richmond Dispatch - Richmond, Virginia
  564. Richmond Enquirer - Richmond, Virginia
  565. Rochester Republican - Rochester, New York
  566. Rochester Union and Advertiser - Rochester, New York
  567. Rocky Mountain News - Denver, Denver County, Colorado
  568. Rolla Weekly Herald - Rolla, Missouri
  569. Roman Citizen - Rome, Oneida County, New York
  570. Rome Sentinel - Rome, Oneida County, New York
  571. Rutland County Herald - Rutland, Vermont
  572. Rutland Globe - Rutland, Vermont
  573. Rutland Herald - Rutland, Vermont
  574. Sacramento Record - Sacramento, California
  575. Sacramento Record Union - Sacramento, California
  576. Sacramento Union - Sacramento, California
  577. Sag Harbor Corrector - Sag-Harbor, Long Island, Suffolk County,
  578. Sag Harbor Express - Sag-Harbor, Long Island, Suffolk County,
  579. Saint Paul Globe - Saint Paul, Minnesota
  580. Salem Gazette - Salem, Massachusetts
  581. Salem Northern Post - Salem, New York
  582. Saline County Journal - Salina, Kansas
  583. Saline County Progress - Marshall, Missouri
  584. Salt Lake Herald - Salt Lake City, Utah
  585. Salt Lake Tribune - Salt Lake City, Utah
  586. San Antonio Light - San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
  587. Sauk County Standard - Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin
  588. Schoharie Union - Schoharie, Schoharie County, New York
  589. Sedalia Bazoo - Sedalia, Pettis County, Missouri
  590. Sedalia Democrat - Sedalia, Pettis County, Missouri
  591. Semi-weekly Interior Journal - Stanford, Kentucky
  592. Semi-weekly Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  593. Shawano County Herald - Shawano, Wisconsin
  594. Shawano County Journal - Shawano, Shawano County, Wisconsin
  595. Shenandoah Herald - Woodstock, Virginia
  596. Shenango Valley Argus - Greenville, Pennsylvania
  597. Silver Cliff Herald - Silver Cliff, Custer County, Colorado
  598. Sioux County Herald - Orange City, Iowa
  599. Sioux County Independent - Calliope, Sioux County, Iowa
  600. Skaneateles Courier and Republican - Skaneateles, Onondago County, New York
  601. Skaneateles Free Press - Skaneateles, Onondago County, New York
  602. Smethport McKean Miner - Smethport, McKean County, Pennsylvania
  603. Smoky Hill and Republican Union - Junction City, Geary County, Kansas
  604. Somerset Herald - Princess Anne, Maryland
  605. South Side Signal - Babylon, Long Island, Suffolk County,
  606. Southern Banner - Athens, Georgia
  607. Southern Recorder - Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia
  608. Southern Watchman - Athens, Georgia
  609. Southern Whig - Athens, Georgia
  610. Sparta Eagle - Sparta, Monroe County, Wisconsin
  611. Spencer Clay County News - Spencer, Iowa
  612. Spirit Lake Beacon - Spirit Lake, Dickinson County, Iowa
  613. Spirit of the Times - New York, New York
  614. Springfield Globe-Republic - Springfield, Ohio
  615. Springfield Leader - Springfield, Christian County, Missouri
  616. St. Cloud Democrat - St. Cloud, Stearns County, Minnesota
  617. St. Cloud Journal - St. Cloud, Stearns County, Minnesota
  618. St. Genevieve Fair Play - Saint Genevieve, Missouri
  619. St. George Union - Saint George, Utah
  620. St. Joseph Gazette - Saint Joseph, Buchanan County, Missouri
  621. St. Joseph Herald - Saint Joseph, Michigan
  622. St. Lawrence Republican - Ogdensburg, New York
  623. St. Lawrence Republican and Ogdensburg Weekly Journal - Ogdensburg, New York
  624. St. Louis Missouri Republican - Saint Louis, Missouri
  625. St. Paul Globe - Saint Paul, Minnesota
  626. Stamford Mirror - Stamford, Delaware County, New York
  627. Stark County Democrat - Canton, Ohio
  628. State Gazette - Austin, Texas
  629. State Journal - Madison, Wisconsin
  630. Sterling Gazette - Sterling, Illinois
  631. Sterling Standard - Sterling, Whiteside County, Illinois
  632. Stevens Point Journal - Stevens Point, Wisconsin
  633. Stevens Point Lumberman - Stevens Point, Portage County, Wisconsin
  634. Stevens Point Wisconsin Pinery - Stevens Point, Portage County, Wisconsin
  635. Sumner Gazette - Sumner, Bremer County, Iowa
  636. Sumter Republican - Americus, Sumter County, Georgia
  637. Sumter Watchman and Southron - Sumter, Sumter County, South Carolina
  638. Sunbury American - Sunbury, Northumberland County,
  639. Sunbury American and Shamokin Journal - Sunbury, Northumberland County,
  640. Sunny South - Atlanta, Georgia
  641. Superior Chronicle - Superior, Douglas County, Wisconsin
  642. Sycamore True Republican - Sycamore, De Kalb County, Illinois
  643. Syracuse Courier and Union - Syracuse, Onondaga County, New York
  644. Syracuse Evening Chronicle - Syracuse, New York
  645. Syracuse Journal - Syracuse, New York
  646. Syracuse Standard - Syracuse, New York
  647. The Country - Georgia
  648. Thomas County Cat - Colby, Thomas County, Kansas
  649. Thomasville Times - Thomasville, Thomas County, Georgia
  650. Tiffin Tribune - Tiffin, Hillsdale County, Ohio
  651. Tioga Eagle - Wellsboro, Pennsylvania
  652. Titusville Morning Herald - Titusville, Pennsylvania
  653. Tombstone Epitaph - Tombstone, Arizona
  654. Torch Light - Hagerstown, Maryland
  655. Trenton Federalist - Trenton, New Jersey
  656. Troy Herald - Troy, Missouri
  657. Union County Star and Lewisburg Chronicle - Lewisburg, Union County, Pennsylvania
  658. Union Springs Advertiser - Union Springs, Cayuga County, New York
  659. Urbana Union - Urbana, Ohio
  660. Utica Gazette - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  661. Utica Herald - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  662. Utica Morning Herald and Daily Gazette - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  663. Utica Observer - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  664. Valentine Reporter - Valentine, Cherry County, Nebraska
  665. Vermont Farmer - Saint Johnsbury, Vermont
  666. Vermont Gazette - Bennington, Vermont
  667. Vermont Phoenix - Brattleboro, Vermont
  668. Vermont Transcript - Saint Albans, Vermont
  669. Vermont Watchman - Montpelier, Vermont
  670. Village Register - Dedham, Massachusetts
  671. Wachusett Star - Barre, Massachusetts
  672. Waco Examiner - Waco, Texas
  673. Warren Ledger - Warren County, Pennsylvania
  674. Washington Evening Critic - Washington, District of Columbia
  675. Washington Globe - Washington, District of Columbia
  676. Washington National Intelligencer - Washington, District of Columbia
  677. Waterloo Courier - Waterloo, Black Hawk County, Iowa
  678. Watertown Democrat - Wattertown, Jefferson County, Wisconsin
  679. Watertown Re-Union - Watertown, Jefferson County, New York
  680. Watertown Times - Watertown, New York
  681. Waterville Times - Waterville, New York
  682. Waukesha County Democrat - Waukesha, Wisconsin
  683. Waukesha Freeman - Waukesha, Wisconsin
  684. Waukesha Plaindealer - Waukesha, Wisconsin
  685. Waupun Times - Waupun, Wisconsin
  686. Waynesboro Village Record - Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
  687. Weekly Columbus Enquirer - Columbus, Georgia
  688. Weekly Georgia Telegraph - Macon, Georgia
  689. Weekly Kansas Chief - Troy, Kansas
  690. Weekly Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  691. Wellsboro Agitator - Wellsboro, Tioga County, Pennsylvania
  692. Wellsville Alleghany County Reporter - Wellsville, Alleghany County, New York
  693. Western Argus - Lyons, Wayne County, New York
  694. Western Carolinian - Salisbury, Rowan County, North Carolina
  695. Western Kansas World - WeKeeney, Trego County, Kansas
  696. Western Reserve Chronicle - Warren, Trumbull County, Ohio
  697. White Cloud Kansas Chief - White Cloud, Kansas
  698. Whitewater Register - Whitewater, Wisconsin
  699. Wichita City Eagle - Wichita, Sedgwick County, Kansas
  700. Willamette Farmer - Salem, Oregon
  701. Williamsport Gazette and Bulletin - Williamsport, Pennsylvania
  702. Williamsport Lycoming Gazette - Williamsport, Pennsylvania
  703. Wilmingtonian and Delaware Advertiser - Wilmington, Delaware
  704. Winnipeg Free Press - Winnipeg, Canada
  705. Winnipeg Standard - Winnipeg, Canada
  706. Winona Record - Winona, Minnesota
  707. Winona Republican - Winona, Minnesota
  708. Wisconsin Democrat - Green Bay, Wisconsin
  709. Wisconsin Free Democrat - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  710. Wisconsin Patriot - Madison, Wisconsin
  711. Wisconsin State Journal - Madison, Wisconsin
  712. Woodbridge Independent Hour - Woodbridge, Middlesex County, New Jersey
  713. Worthington Gazette - Worthington, Green County, Indiana
  714. Wyoming County Mirror - Warsaw, New York
  715. Yellowstone Journal [a.k.a. Daily Yellowstone Journal] - Miles City, Montana
  716. Zanesville Courier - Zanesville, Muskingum County, Ohio

The first known instance of importance was issued in 1723 by an eastern newspaper. Other articles of interested continued in an increasing frequency, through the mid-1880s. Several other with historic details are known for Nebraska due to previous times when individual issues were reviewed as available on microfilm. A remembrance conveyed in one article extends the time back to 1675.

More than 5900 records were located and recorded according to specific details, including bird name, place, date, and source. This is an indication for the U.S. states with the greater amount of records:

New York: 714
Nebraska: 685
Iowa: 487
Pennsylvania: 367
Wisconsin: 293
Georgia: 279
California: 251
New Jersey: 247
Massachusetts: 233
Illinois: 222
Missouri: 213
Kansas: 204
Indiana: 166
Ohio: 147
Minnesota: 143
Florida: 120
Maryland: 117
Texas: 103

There are certainly more available ...

In an evaluation of species, the Passenger Pigeon, based upon the known results, was most prominently reported on the pages of the newspapers. A tally for this particular focus, indicates these results, for those species most prominently mentioned, with the common name given based upon 2012 nomenclature presented by the International Ornithological Council:

Passenger Pigeon - 919 derived records
Greater Prairie Chicken - 431 derived records
Bald Eagle - 365
Canada Goose - 234
Northern Bobwhite - 212
Wild Turkey - 150
Snowy Owl - 135
American Robin - 127
Eastern Bluebird - 115
Wilson's Snipe - 94
Mallard - 93
Sandhill Crane - 82
American Woodcock - 70
American White Pelican - 68
American Crow - 59
Purple Martin - 50
Ruffed Grouse - 48
Mourning Dove - 47
Great Blue Heron - 46
Blue-winged Teal - 39
Canvasback - 38
Trumpeter Swan - 37
Killdeer - 33
Northern Shoveler - 32
Golden Eagle - 32
Sora - 32
American Wigeon - 31

Overall, at least 273 species were mentioned among the expressively different articles of particular interest discovered thus far.

This is a rather terse report of what the newspapers convey, but it would require a multitude of more words to express what the can be learned searching pages of print, formerly published in their entirety. It would also require e-payment or a credit card to pay for unlimited access.

Some of the especially interesting articles have been typed in their entirety, and already presented here on this blog.

21 November 2012

A Glimpse into the Pigeon Market of Chicago of 1867

For a two-month period from mid-April through June 1867, the extent of market offerings of the Passenger Pigeon was carefully noted by a daily market report. The details indicate the immense number of these birds sold at the wholesale market.

The first notation occurred on April 13th, when 12 dozen pigeons were sold for the nominal amount of $1.25 per dozen, to an unknown buyer. There were additional reports in subsequent days, with an apparently daily report from the last few days of April, through the first days of June.

Sale reports indicate there were many multitudes of these birds sold. They were bought at various prices, in varying condition, during these few days amidst the historic chronicles.

These are the indicated details:

Date of Issue: Account Detail: Derived Number
04/13/1867: 12 dozen pigeons at $1.25: 144
04/18/1867: 60 dozen pigeons at $1.50: 720
04/20/1867: 15 dozen pigeons at $1.75: 180
04/23/1867: 2 dozen pigeons at $1.25: 24
04/24/1867: 10 dozen pigeons at $1.25, 40 dozen $1.20: 600
04/25/1867: 90 dozen pigeons at $1.20, 20 dozen at 1.15, 60 dozen 1.00: 2040
04/26/1867: 220 dozen pigeons at 75 c: 2640
04/27/1867: 31 dozen pigeons at 75 c @ $1.00, 23 dozen at 90 c @ $1.00, 20 dozen at $1.00 @ 1.25: 888
04/29/1867: 140 dozen pigeons at 65 c @ $1.00, 50 dozen at 62 1/2 c: 2280
04/30/1867: 200 dozen pigeons at 62 1/2 c, 50 dozen 70 c @ 75, 75 dozen 70 c @ 80: 3900
05/01/1867: 10 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 10 dozen 65 c, 25 dozen 80 c: 540
05/02/1867: 20 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 16 dozen at 65 c: 432
05/03/1867: 90 dozen pigeons at 75 c: 1080
05/04/1867: 40 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 62 dozen at 80 c, 20 dozen at 85 c, 20 dozen picked at 90 c: 1704
05/06/1867: 200 dozen pigeons at 75 c: 2400
05/07/1867: 270 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 50 dozen at 85 c, 5 dozen 80 c, 18 dozen dressed at 90 c: 4116
05/08/1867: 110 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 220 dozen at 70 c, 50 dozen dressed at 90 c: 4560
05/09/1867: 30 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 150 dozen at 70 c: 2160
05/10/1867: 20 dozen pigeons at 65 c, 22 dozen 70 c: 504
05/11/1867: 40 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 75 dozen at 70 c, 10 dozen at 80 c, 50 dozen picked at 90 c: 2100
05/13/1867: sales 20 dozen pigeons at 70 c, 12 dozen 85 c, 10 dozen at $1.00; pigeons less plentiful - prices higher: 504
05/14/1867: sale 40 dozen pigeons at 70 c, 8 dozen at 80 c, 40 dozen at 90 c, 20 dozen dressed at $1.00, 150 dozen dressed at 90 c: 3096
05/15/1867: sales 20 dozen pigeons at 85 c, 49 dozen at 75 c, 60 dozen live at $1.00, 3 coops at $1.25, 20 dozen dressed at $1.00: 1788
05/16/1867: 52 dozen pigeons at 85 c, 98 dozen 80 c, 25 dozen picked at 90 c, 20 dozen picked at $1.00, 4 coops $1.35: 2340
05/17/1867: 45 dozen pigeons at 80 c, 29 dozen 85 c, 30 dozen dressed at $1.00, 20 dozen live at $1.35: 1488
05/18/1867: 12 dozen pigeons at 65 c, 90 dozen 75 c, 20 dozen 80 c, 45 dozen dressed at 90 c, 4 coops live at $1.25, 2 dozen live $1.10, 1 dozen live $1.20; supply increasing - dull: 2004
05/20/1867: 80 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 100 dozen dress at 85 c, 90 dozen at 90 c, 12 dozen live at $1.00, 2 coops at $1.20; large supply and dull: 3384
05/21/1867: 19 dozen pigeons at 75 c, 15 dozen live at 90 c, 2 coops at $1.20; 1 barrel picked at 85 c, 60 dozen dressed at 80 c: 1128
05/22/1867: 190 dozen pigeons at 70 c, 120 dozen 75 c, 70 dozen picked at 80 c, 145 dozen picked, 85 c, 4 coops at $1.05: 6300
05/23/1867: 208 dozen pigeons at 50 c @ 65, 20 dozen 70 c, 50 dozen picked at 80 c, 19 1/2 dozen live $1.00, 1 coop $1.00; large supply, very dull: 3570
05/24/1867: 400 dozen pigeons at 25 c, 6 dozen 40 c, 219 dozen 60 c @ 65, 30 dozen picked at 75 c, 60 dozen 80c, 50 dozen live at 90 c; large supply, very dull: 9180
05/25/1867: 66 dozen pigeons at 55 c, 44 dozen 60 c, 45 dozen 70 c, 4 dozen 50 c, 90 dozen dressed at 75 c, 15 dozen dressed 85c, 100 dozen live at 50 c; 54 dozen live at 70 c; large supply: 5016
05/27/1867: 115 dozen pigeons at 50 c, 118 dozen picked at 60 c, 1 coop live at 70 c, 30 dozen fresh at 75 c, 26 dozen stale at 20 c: 3468
05/28/1867: 50 dozen pigeons at 50 c @ 60, 40 dozen picked at 75 c, 6 coops live at $1.10: 1080
05/29/1867: 38 dozen stale pigeons at 25 c, 40 dozen dressed at 70 c, 6 coops live at $1.10: 936
05/30/1867: 36 dozen pigeons at 70 c @ 75, 60 dozen picked at 70 c, 1 coop at $1.00: 1152
05/31/1867: 125 dozen pigeons at 50 c @ 65, 115 dozen picked at 80 c, 4 coops live at 75 c: 2880
06/01/1867: 40 dozen pigeons at 50 c, 35 dozen 75c , 20 dozen picked at 85 c, 2 coops live at 75 c: 1140
06/03/1867: 1 barrel picked pigeons at 80 c per dozen: 0
06/05/1867: 14 dozen pigeons at 80 c, 72 dozen picked at $1.00, 10 dozen live at 60 c, 25 dozen dressed at 85 c: 1452
06/08/1867: 25 dozen picked pigeons at 85 c: 300
06/12/1867: 13 dozen live pigeons at 80 c per dozen: 156
06/15/1867: 4 dozen live pigeons at $1.00 per dozen: 48

Each individual report, conveyed on a daily basis, distinctly indicate particulars for the game market at Chicago. The particular significance for these few considered weeks, is basically the sale of more than 85,000 pigeons within basically a few week. There were dead birds, picked birds which might convey that the feathers had been removed from the carcass, live birds which were perhaps useful for shootist competitions at some place, and coops of live birds, which was a category different enough to get particular mention.

Chicago was obviously a place where wild pigeons could be readily brought and sold. Its extent is expressive in conveying a tally for one market. There were additional markets elsewhere also selling game, to some great extent. New York and Boston were prominent game markets at the time, according to reports of the era.

The lakeshore city was a nexus of commerce. Its setting meant a difference for any commerce and trade, including game. There were more than 15 rail road companies recognized by the business directory. There were connections to Baltimore, St. Louis, Illinois, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and also into Canada where there were rails for commerce of some sort.

A business register of the time for Chicago lists more than twenty "Brokers, Provision & Produce." An advertisement in the publication indicated T.D. Randall, at No. 99 State Street, as a "general commission merchant, and wholesale dealer in fruit, vegetables, poultry, game etc." It is not known if the company was involved in the pigeon trade. Another eight or so businesses were involved with "Game, Poultry, etc." including two at North Market.

Chicago had more than 200 meat markets in 1867-68, according to the business directory, whereupon game could be sold to a willing consumer, after a purchase at the nearest wholesale market. Whether any of these markets specialized in game is not known based upon the chronicles available to be considered.

The extent of trade involving pigeons is readily obvious.

Because some historic documents easily available online, there is an opportunity to discover and newly realize bird history details in a new context. Particulars regarding the Passenger Pigeon as offered in Chicago are one particular instance of significance.

Dredging Lily-pad Wetland at Carter Lake

Dredging at Carter Lake is removing the lake bottom at what had been a lily-pad wetland. This activity is occurring at a place were according to plans for the lake's alteration, was designated as being off-limits to any dredging.

During a visit on 21 November to the lake and Levi Carter Park, the dredge — which is still operating — was located just west of the east-side pier where the lily-pads grew.

Apparently this design constraint has been ignored, and conveys, once again, the cavalier stance of the people involved with this project, where things are said and indicated, but something entirely different is actually done.

This is a view of the lily-pad growth in autumn of 2009.

Apparently the dredging process was completed a day or two prior to Thanksgiving.

At a pre-bid meeting for the this lake project on May 26, 2011, item 3.a. indicated the park "will not be closed," though a large portion of it has been for now for several weeks. Obviously this was another case where city officials indicated something, but did the opposite.

On the west side of the lake, on the Iowa side, fill dirt is being placed in a low-lying tract next to the lake, apparently for the purpose of building a structure. The area had been sort of unkempt and a bit of a wild haven.

15 November 2012

Crossbill Excitement Wrought at Midcity Cemetery

The discovery of two sorts of crossbills at a midcity cemetery has brought many visitors looking up into trees, rather than at any ornate grave markers.

First reported online 11 November by an Omaha birder, the enote indicating the presence of Red Crossbills and White-winged Crossbills at Holy Sepulchure Cemetery, resulted in a quick response. Other birders visited the place southeast of 50th and Leavenworth Streets later during the day, and conveyed that both species were still present.

A spruce tree appreciated by the crossbills. The trees have been identified as Picea glauca and specifically either White Spruce (Picea glauca) or Blackhills Spruce (Picea glauca var. densata).

An influx of visitors resulted, with each of them intent upon finding the Gillaspie angel monument — indicated as a reference landmark — because in the nearby spruce trees was a multitude of brown cones with seeds which the birds eat.

There were bird watching visitors on Monday. Then more on Tuesday.

Crossbill watchers.

The birds of specific interest were very active later in the morning on 13 November. There were more than 20 present, notably counted as they flew, in two different bunches, from one tree to another. While there, two other bird-watchers arrived to get a view, including one from Lincoln.

There were other visitors during the remaining hours of the day. Tuesday afternoon, a depictive count of numbers was done, as provided by Lincoln visitors, John Carlini and Shari Schwartz. Results of their tally indicated online, were:

Red Crossbill (probably missed some, they indicated)
4 female
4 male
1 immature male
White-winged Crossbill
6 female
3 male
1 immature male

Some more watchers were on the scene early Wednesday, according to the cemetery caretaker, commenting in the afternoon, when he stopped by while another bunch of birders were present. He'd already gotten a summary of the situation on Tuesday, and on Wednesday afternoon he was given a visual perspective of crossbills since one of the birders had a field guide, so useful to convey the reason for the unusual influx of traffic.

This event is a notable occurrence for both species. It is not, however, the first record for their occurrence in the mid-city environs of Omaha.

From 1919 to 1925, there were a few records of Red Crossbill occurrence at Elmwood Park. A female on a nest was recorded in latter March, 1920. Sporadic records continued through the 1930s. More recent sightings occurred during May 1993 and May 1997.

The most recent known occurrence of the White-winged Crossbill in the vicinity was March 1970, also at Elmwood Park. A second record for this same place is available for November 1969. A long-ago record conveys that this species also occurred in the park in January 1920.

Though crossbills are obviously the primary interest for watchers of birds, there are other birds about in the cemetery. Species of some interest noted at the cemetery during these days, include the Red-breasted Nuthatch, with ten different species observed on 13 November.

Exciting additions to the tally have been the Merlin on Tuesday and a flighty Cooper's Hawk on Wednesday. Both raptors have had an obvious influence on the crossbills, either setting them to flight to another tree, or causing them to "go quiet" and making them less obvious.

A hearty crop of cones upon well-grown spruces trees brought crossbills to midcity. Because of this unexpected, yet widely expressed discovery, another distinctive aspect of bird-life within the urban setting of Omaha became obvious. Activities of these cross-billed birds is certainly being enjoyed by many bird watchers, whether they arrive by bicycle or motor-vehicle.

Despite any words by watchers, both species of crossbill are completely oblivious about what their presence has wrought.

Spruce cones beneath a crossbill tree.

There were six White-winged Crossbills present about 9 a.m. on Thanksgiving morning.

14 November 2012

Bird Window-strike Instance Number 1500

On a March date in 2007, while walking about campus, a dead bird on the sidewalk did lay along my way. Why is this, was my thought, and how was it wrought? Looking above, it was obvious to perceive, that the glass of walkway the robin did not see. It was an obvious result, vividly conveyed that day.

There on the campus of UNL, further window-strikes were seen about the same landscaped scene.

The venue of interest changed in 2008 to the urban setting along the Missouri River, and after five years, the results make me shiver. Dead and disabled birds here and there, typically upon the urban sidewalks in east Omaha, the results which statistics lay bare.

On November 14th while looking about, the latest window-strike is something worth a shout. The song sparrow, small and lifeless, struck some glass and ended up dead, with its carcass forlorn upon pebbles and rocks, and another view seen with ongoing dread.

Window-strike instance number 1500, Song Sparrow at Gottschalk Freedom Center.

There are not enough words to be said on this topic, but for building owners, their concern is myopic. Hundreds of birds die in each Omaha season, with similar events to occur regularly in each future year, without any reason.

Deaths of wild birds are an important concern, and the dangers of which people need to learn.

Every window-strike is certainly a tragedy, and typically the end of a life of wild bird majesty.

A couple of days earlier, another bird did die, its carcass found with a sigh. It was a snipe carcass at the CenturyLink place, found with bloody mark on its face. The feathers were all brown and vivid, but the death is enough to make a person livid.

Dead Wilson's Snipe at the CenturyLink Center Omaha. 10 November 2012.

The extent of window-strikes in Omaha is well denoted, with 1500 instances now particularly noted. It is a situation which needs some revision, due to the alternate view of every bird's vision. Any effort to change to situation has great potential, because if something is not done, the deaths will continue in a manner quite torrential.

So many deaths and so much suffering impact so many species and individuals which once had life, the results troublesome and resulting in strife. A federal agency is legally responsible through the MBTA for the protection of nearly every bird, but their lack of action on this national tragedy is quite absurd.

Feathers of a Canada Goose killed by power lines adjacent to Carter Lake, within Levi Carter Park. 14 November 2012. This strike was seen as it happened, the bird flopping around on the grass in the moments before it died.

Our National Dinner Day - San Francisco Game Market

Few of our readers but are aware that immense quantities of game are disposed of in our markets, daily, at this season of the year. And this amount is vastly augmented on the annual recurrence of the time-honored festival of Thanksgiving, as will be seen by a perusal of the figures given below.

Dealers inform us that there has never, on any previous anniversary, been so extensive demand for every variety of food, as during the day preceding Thanksgiving of the present year. The supplies are mainly furnished from the counties of San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, Solano and Sonoma. The valleys of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, however, contribute their quota, particularly of web-footed fowl, which are found in innumerable abundance during the rainy season in the marshes, and estuaries, and along the shores bordering on the streams. In fact, throughout the state there are few localities in which game in vast quantities and of delicious flavor, is not to be had for the next three months. The forests of Klamath and the lakes of Siskiyou — the marshes of Mariposa and the sands of San Diego — can all furnish game fit for the sensitive palate of the gourmand.

The unusual abundance of quail and other small birds, has so reduced prices as to place those delicious luxuries with the reach of the humblest. The same remark will also apply to every description of wild fowl.

On entering the markets, early on yesterday, we found them crowded with every class of our population — old and young, rich and poor, high and low. Here might be seen an obese landlady pressing her thumb on the breast bone of a gobbler; there a fastidious connoisseur inspecting a brace of mallards; and anon a plainly clad laborer, inquiring the price of a pair of chickens. Everybody must have had a fowl dinner, yesterday, to judge by the demand at all the stalls where winged specimens were to be obtained.

The subjoined is a list of the number of turkeys, geese, brandt, chickens, quail, prices, &c., which we obtained from the vendors, whose names are also given. These are the principal dealers, and yet do not constitute all of them, for, scattered throughout the city, are many provision and other stores, which, sell on holidays, every description of fowl. Then, too, we have not a few amateur sportsmen, who scour the country for days prior to Thanksgiving, and come home laden with game, which is distributed amongst friends and acquaintances. So that we can safely estimate the quantity of game consumed in this city yesterday, at double that shown by the annexed figures. These sales include the day prior to as well as Thanksgiving day.




Ducks, Geese, Small Game.



- -


J.H. Lourie




Cook & Co.











- -



- -






Lemoine & Co.







- -

A. Thompson




Hart & Raymond








Turkeys sold for two dollars a-piece before the demand grew active, but after the rush commenced were held as high, in many instances, as five dollars. Forty cents per pound was usually the ruling price. Quail readily bought $2.50 per dozen; ducks, from 50 cents to $1.25 per pair; chickens, $10 per dozen, and pigeons, $5.50 per dozen. Immense quantities of eggs were sold, one firm disposed of 300 dozen at retail. Amongst the gallinaceous specimens in coops of Hart & Raymond, we observed some two or three hundred dozen of Guinea hens; rather a rare fowl in our markets.

It is fair to presume that of the seven thousand or more fowl sold, there was enough for a good "square meal" for the entire population, including men, women, children, and Chinadom.

November 27, 1857. Daily Alta California 9(220): 2.

12 November 2012

Corps Habitat Development Continues Along Missouri

In continuing to restore habitats along the Missouri River, the Army Corps of Engineers has several notable projects recently completed or underway.

Details for these projects were provided by Kelly Crane and Luke Wallace, both actively involved with the habitat restoration efforts by the Omaha District of the Corps.

Projects completed or underway, include:

1. Deer Island, on the Iowa side of the river at mile 672 (just above the confluence of the Little Sioux River), and located on property owned by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources: is a major channel top width widening project designed to create shallow water habitat along the main channel border. The top width of the river will be increased up to 400 feet in places to establish a "bench" of shallow water adjacent to the primary river channel. This project was started in 2012, and will be completed in 2014.

Deer Island project, October 2012. All images courtesy of the Army Corps of Engineers.

2. Sandy Point, on the Nebraska side of the river at mile 657, and completed in 2011: a new shallow water habitat was created that that consists of two chutes and multiple tie channels connecting the chutes to the river. The setting will provide an several features, according to Wallace, including an increase in the depth and flow diversity of the off-channel river waters, create more edge habitat and provide places for woody debris piles to develop.

Sandy Point project, October 2012.

"This is a complex project not like any that have been previously done," said Wallace, especially noting it is "unique for having two chutes. It is like a research project," with extensive preliminary modeling done to determine the best method of implementation. Physical and biological monitoring will be done to evaluate the results, he said.

3. Tobacco Island, at river mile 588: a modification to an existing chute to change the location of the inlet and route the chute away from a rocky outcropping to allow the chute develop over the years as designed. This project is at the William Gilmore WMA, just downstream from Plattsmouth. The first chute created could not widen as intended due to the rock strata near the bluffs, so a chute is being dredged further to the east and closer to the river. The first chute will revert to backwater habitat, Crane said.

Tobacco Island project, October 2012.

Other smaller projects required due to changes in channel features caused by the 2011 flood, were done at Fawn Island, Middle Decatur Bend, and Tyson Bend, said Wallace. This primarily involved dredging to reconnect features to the river hydrology.

The corps plans to work on the following project in the coming months, Crane said.

1. Little Sioux Bend, in Nebraska at river mile 668: "create a chute with multiple tie channels similar to the Sandy Point project.

Little Sioux Bend project site, October 2012.

Little Sioux Bend project design, October 2012.

2. Boyer/DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge, on the Iowa side of the Missouri at river mile 644: a shallow water feature will be created on refuge lands, in conjunction with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A planning meeting for this project occurred November 9th.

3. Glover's Point, on the Nebraska side of the river on Winnebago Tribe land at river mile 712: a backwater area will be established, including a connection to river hydrology, to what had been a chute project. High river flows in 2011 blocked the upstream end of the chute, Crane said. The Corps is working with members of the Winnebago Tribe to revise the project features.

Each of these projects are required to mitigate the loss of habitat due to construction of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project.

Project Evaluation

A reconnaissance to evaluate the status of the river and mitigation projects from Rulo, Neb. to Sioux City, IA, occurred on October 16-17th.

Fifteen people participating in the helicopter flights included Corps engineers, biologists and construction representatives responsible if the design and function of the projects, along with representatives of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and Nebraska Game and Parks Commission.

They had an opportunity to look at different construction, hydrology, recovery and environmental components along the river, according to Wallace. And to in particular:

  1. evaluate current river conditions subsequent to the 2011 flood;
  2. determine the status of site repairs done earlier in the year to repair flood damage;
  3. review work completed or underway at project sites;
  4. see where levee repairs had been done, and to get a perspective of the borrow sites where dirt was removed to repair the levee structures. In some cases, where public land was available, the levees were moved a further distance from the primary river channel. At other sites, the excavation of dirt necessary for the new levees, meant new wetland habitat was developed, with hundreds of acres created overall.
  5. consider locations for potential new projects.

During the survey, thousands of documentary photographs were taken that visually convey the river condition setting along the entire distance.

These flights, done every October, "provide a great perspective and a good overview," Crane said. "They are beneficial because they allow those responsible for the projects to see them all in one day. The two state agencies are very important partners with the Corps and participate in selecting, planning and designing projects" in their states. The National Park Service is also a partner, along the Missouri National Recreation River, above Ponca State Park.

Price for Birds at Historic Nebraska Markets

Wild birds were an item of trade long before they were a commodity of business. Native peoples, frontier pioneers and then settlers utilized local resources as a source for food, and when possible, traded or sold their take to others in a willing exchange or some sort or another. As settlement spread westward during the mid-1800s, people in prairie schooners could have spent hoarded money to get something suitable to for an evenings' meal. During the years of this period of history, selling a brace of prairie chickens might have meant an infusion of cash money for a family to purchase survival essentials on the edge of civilization. Every resource was important.

Many sort of birds — especially those occuring in gatherings of some greater sort — attracted shootists of all ages proficient with a weapon and that went forth with a focused intent to harvest whatever was suitably available for the taking. On the killing end of arrows or gun-shot were gaggles of geese, flighty ducks, masses of passenger pigeons, flocks of prairie chickens among vast expanses of grass or a covey of quail bursting forth from the edge of a woodland's edge. Until the mid- to latter-1800s, there were no restrictive laws to consider. Acquiring dozens, or hundreds, was a matter of availability, purpose and effort.

The game market was widespread in America, but for Nebraska in particular, details about selling bird carcasses in a business venue are sparse among the years when Nebraska was becoming a state. Records of market prices are little known among the first chronicles of newspapers that could be readily considered.

A distinctive indication did occur in 1866. An excursionary party from eastern states traveled westward to experience scenes along the path of the Union Pacific Railroad, as it moved westward across the central plains. Some of the people left Jersey City in mid-October, with others joining along the route. Members of the party stayed at Omaha on Monday October 22nd, experiencing a grand ball at the Herndon House that evening.

Tuesday the party continued west, and camped near Columbus, where, according to tidbits of details, essential supplies and other requisites had already been delivered by a freight train which had already arrived at the scene.

On Wednesday the excursionists arrived at Platte City, which was a train construction camp at the east end of Brady's Island, about 15 miles east of the forks of the Platte River. On Thursday, the 25th, the tour participants — including representatives from newspapers issued at New York, Waltham, Mass., Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago, Springfield, Ill., Council Bluffs, Iowa, and Omaha — viewed work gangs laying wooden ties and silver rails that provided a railroad track, as well as other local activities.

What is especially significant for this day, is a newspaper issue called the Railway Pioneer printed at the site, using type and a press provided by the Omaha Republican. In addition to some stories of events, it indicated market prices from the East Coast and London, along with prices for game animals at Platte City. A variety of game was readily available, for cash.

¶ "buffalo meat, per pound, 15c
¶ "elk meat, 12 to 15c;
¶ "antelope, 16 to 18c;
¶ "prairie chickens, per pair, 50 to 60c;

¶ "wild ducks, pair, 75c to $1.00;
¶ "wild geese, each, $1.25 to $1.50;
¶ "sage hens, 50 to 65c;
¶ "snipe, each 25 to 30c."

The birds provided meat to eat, after being taken by hunters and delivered to the proprietor of the market catering to a local demand, which certainly included hungry men working on the railway. It was a transaction at some sort of slight structure — perhaps just a flimsy tent by the tracks — on the spreading frontier of the west.

This vivid report expressively conveys a cost for different types of wild birds along the railway line. There had to have been other similar places, but whose activities are unknown because they were not remembered in a lasting manner.

The market for wild game increased exponentially throughout the states in subsequent years, as rewarding avenues of business spread. Game was a well-known commodity, and its status was indicated by various publications, perhaps more focused upon cattle, sheep and linen. Game was a prominent facet of the trade, well known at large eastern cities such as New York, Baltimore, and Chicago. To a lesser degree, it was a matter of commerce at Minneapolis, Minn., and Omaha, a regional hub of commerce at the Missouri River.

Omaha Market Prices

Wild birds designated within a listing as game, was a commodity regularly sold amongst the lively market district in east Omaha. Shootists spread about the region shipped their take to the river city, providing carcasses for a price including an essential profit.

A first listing for game birds at the Omaha Market was March 1875, when prairie chickens brought $1.75 per dozen, and quail at $1.00. In April 1877, mixed geese were 1.50, with geese and brant at $3.00 per dozen. The market was said to be "dull and lower" with these price quotes continuing the same through the month.

During the 1880s, the cost for a dozen birds of various sorts was regularly reported upon numerous pages and different issues of the Omaha Daily Bee.

The game birds arrived in some sort of container, probably labeled as poultry, while being shipped according to something of a protocol. In January 1885, the market report indicated: "In shipping birds (excepting geese and ducks) pack them in tight packages, boxes or barrels, and ship as 'poultry'."

During this decade, there was a market for birds from late August, through autumn and winter, and into late spring, as indicated by the market report listings. It seems that birds were sold nearly year-round, as they were indicated in the price quotes in every other month, except June and July.

Details that convey the wholesale price, were reported by the Omaha Bee market report. The valuation was the price charged by "jobbers, wholesalers and commission merchants." Though a price quote may have been provided, it did not necessarily indicate the actual availability of that particular commodity, but represented what would be paid. Details given here are from the regular, nearly daily, market report in the Omaha Daily Bee for 110 different days, which provided more than 500 price quotes between September 1, 1881 and December 25, 1889.

The values indicate a lower price, since a price range was typically reported, and which was usually 25 to 50 cents greater.

Bird Species at the Market

Considering the regular notations for game birds, the following evaluation was possible by comparing the broad-range of records in the newspaper. Most often, a listing referred to the species and their price to buy, while occasionally further details were provided, adding some newsy bits of special interest.

Geese, most likely the Canada Goose; the quoted price varied from $1 per dozen in November 1881 to $4.50 in March and April 1884. In October 1881, the cost was $3.50 per dozen on the 11th, but declined to a minimal value of $2.75 on the 21st and 29th. On November 10th, the price quote was $1, but then increased to $2.75 within ten days.

Snow Goose, listed as brant, and which might have included other species; the cost per dozen was $2.25 in November and December 1885, with a $2 valuation for January to mid-May in 1887.

Duck; varied from a low of 70 cents to $2 per dozen, as sold from September through mid-May. This tally would represent several different species other than teal, and the obviously recognized mallard. There could have been gadwall, wigeon and scaup represented.

Mallard; many reports indicate the price to buy a dozen mallards. Late in 1883, the prices was $2 per dozen, but by later spring in 1884, the quoted minimum price was $2.50. From late winter of 1888 and into early 1889, the price quote for a dozen of these ducks was $3.25. In early December 1884, the market value was $1 per dozen.

11/21/1883: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
12/05/1883: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
12/31/1883: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
01/30/1884: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
02/13/1884: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
03/19/1884: per doz., $2.50
04/02/1884: per doz., $2.50; all kinds of good demand, especially ducks
04/16/1884: per doz., $2.00
05/14/1884: per doz., $2.00
10/23/1884: $1.75 @ 2.00
11/19/1884: $1.50 @ 1.75
12/03/1884: $1.00 @ 1.50
12/17/1884: $1.50 @ 2.00
12/31/1884: $2.00 @ 2.50
01/07/1885: $2.00 @ 2.50
02/11/1885: $2.00 @ 2.50
03/04/1885: $2.00 @ 2.50
03/18/1885: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
04/08/1885: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
04/22/1885: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
05/06/1885: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
09/16/1885: $1.75 @ 2.00
10/14/1885: $2.00 @ 2.50
10/28/1885: $1.75 @ 2.00
11/18/1885: $2.25 @ 2.50
12/02/1885: $1.75 @ 2.00
12/16/1885: per doz., $2.25 @ 2.50
12/30/1885: per doz., $2.25
01/06/1886: $2.25
01/20/1886: $2.40 @ 2.50
02/10/1886: $2.25
03/10/1886: per doz., $2.25 @ 2.50
03/24/1886: $2.00 @ 2.25
04/07/1886: $2.00
04/28/1886: quoted at $1.50 @ 2.00
09/22/1886: $1.75 @ 2.25
10/13/1886: $1.75 @ 2.00
10/27/1886: $1.50 @ 2.00
11/24/1886: $1.75
12/08/1886: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
12/22/1886: per doz., $1.75 @ 2.00

01/05/1887: per doz., $1.75 @ 2.00
01/19/1887: per doz., $2.25 @ 2.50
02/09/1887: per doz., $1.75 @ 2.00
02/23/1887: per doz., $1.75 @ 2.00
03/16/1887: per doz., $2.50 @ 3.00
03/23/1887: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.75
04/06/1887: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.25
05/18/1887: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.25
08/31/1887: $3.00 per dozen; a few received, and a novelty on the market
09/02/1887: $2.25 @ 2.50; in light receipt
09/21/1887: $2.75 @ 3.00
10/05/1887: $1.50 @ 1.75
10/19/1887: $1.50 @ 1.75
11/02/1887: $2.50
11/23/1887: $2.50 @ 2.80
12/07/1887: $2.25
11/14/1888: per doz., $2.50 @ 2.75
12/05/1888: per doz., $1.50 @ 2.75
12/20/1888: per doz., $3.25
01/02/1889: per doz., $3.25
01/16/1889: per doz., $2.75 @ 3.00
02/13/1889: per doz., $2.75 @ 3.00
02/27/1889: per doz., $3.00 @ 3.50
04/10/1889: per doz., $3.00 @ 3.50
04/24/1889: $2.50 @ 3.00
09/11/1889: $3.00 @ 4.00
09/18/1889: $2.50 @ 3.00
11/13/1889: $3.00 @ 3.50
12/25/1889: $3.00 @ 3.50

This wild duck was apparently available at the market, surprisingly late during the spring, according to the records indicated by the newspaper.

Teal: the cost for a dozen varied between $1 and $2.50. Typically the price was $1.25 to $1.75. The greatest cost per dozen of $2.50 was in mid-March 1887.

Redhead: available for $2.25 in the spring of 1884, and then $2.50 per dozen during January to April, 1889.

Canvasback: price details are known only from January and February 1889, at $4 to 4.50 per dozen for this epicurean delight.

Greater Prairie Chicken: a common market item with prices that varied from $1.75 to $4.50 per dozen. The lesser price was in early September, soon after the legal season for taking opened. The greater price was during late November and December. During 1881 and 1883, the cost never exceeded $3 per dozen, with a $4 price quote first indicated in March 1884. In December 1884, was the first occurrence of a $4.50 valuation. There is no apparent general trend towards an increasing price during the decade.

The following examples convey the actual details as given for prairie chickens on the market page of the Bee, during the decade:

09/01/1881: $2.50 @ 3.00 per dozen
09/06/1881: $3.00 @ 3.50 per dozen
10/05/1881: $2.25 @ 3.00 per dozen
10/09/1881: $3 per dozen
10/11/1881: $2.50 @ 3.00 per dozen
11/10/1881: $2.50 @ 3.00 per dozen
11/19/1881: $2.75 @ 3.00 per dozen; in light supply
12/15/1881: $3.00 @ 3.50 per dozen
09/19/1883: $1.75 @ 2.00 per doz.
10/03/1883: $1.75 @ 2.00
10/17/1883: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50; very little demand
11/07/1883: per doz., $2.50 @ 3.00
11/21/1883: per doz., $3.50 to 3.75
12/05/1883: per doz., $3.00 to 3.25
12/31/1883: per doz., $3.00 to 3.25
01/09/1884: per doz., $3.00 to 3.25
02/13/1884: per doz., $3.00 to 3.25
02/27/1884: per doz., $3.00 to 3.25
03/19/1884: $4.00
04/02/1884: $4.00
09/02/1884: now in season but after the first few days demand has let up considerable and they are now slow sale at $2.00 @ 2.50 per dozen
09/24/1884: slow at $2.00 @ 2.50
10/23/1884: per doz., $2.50
11/05/1884: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.75
11/19/1884: per doz., $2.00 @ 3.00
12/03/1884: prairie chickens in strong request and we can guarantee $3.50 per dozen for all choice undrawn birds
12/17/1884: per doz., $3.75
12/31/1884: per doz., $4.50
01/07/1885: per doz., $4.00; have been very plentiful lately, and as demand did not keep up, prices have declined some, but may keep up if weather keeps cold
01/28/1885: per dozen, $4.00
02/11/1885: per doz., $4.00; game law of this state prohibits the killing of prairie chickens or grouse after February 1
03/04/1885: per doz., $3.50
09/02/1885: receipts not very liberal; stock arrived mostly in fair condition; bulk of sales made at $2.50; all birds should be drawn and packed in ice
09/16/1885: arriving in excess of demand, quotable at $1.75 @ 2.25
09/30/1885: quotable $1.75 @ 2.25
10/14/1885: in strong request and will now bring better prices; $2.50 @ $2.75 per dozen
10/28/1885: per doz., $2.75 @ 3.00
11/18/1885: per doz., $3.00
12/02/1885: $2.75 @ $3.00
12/16/1885: prairie chickens are especially in good demand at $3.25 per doz., and a few sales were made in a retail way as high as $3.50
01/06/1886: $2.50 @ 2.75
01/20/1886: $2.75 @ 3.00
02/10/1886: per doz., $2.50 @ 2.75; prairie chickens were out of season on January 1, so very few are coming in
03/24/1886: per doz., $2.50
04/07/1886: per doz., $2.00 @ 2.50
09/08/1886: receipts heavy and a great many packages in very bad condition, owing to hot weather; sale are dragging, $2.00 being about outside price for choice sound birds
09/22/1886: $2.25 @ 2.50 per dozen; as soon as cold weather sets in there will be a brisk demand for prairie chicken at good paying prices
10/13/1886: per doz., $3.00; prairie chickens and grouse, when in good order, sell readily at quotations
10/27/1886: choice, per doz., $2.50 @ 2.75 was very outside obtainable
11/24/1886: choice, per doz., $3.50 @ 3.75
12/08/1886: per doz., $3.50 @ 4.00
12/22/1886: choice, per doz., $4.00
01/05/1887: choice, per doz., $3.75
01/19/1887: per doz., $3.00; prairie chickens are out of season
09/02/1887: $2.50 @ 3.00; receipts are liberal for so early in the season
09/21/1887: $2.50
10/19/1887: $3.00 @ 3.25
11/02/1887: $4.25 @ 4.50
11/23/1887: $3.50 @ 4.00
12/07/1887: $4.00
11/14/1888: $3.50 per doz.
12/05/1888: $3.75 @ 4.00
01/02/1889: per doz., $4.00 @ 4.50
09/11/1889: $2.00 @ 3.00; weather too hot for game and but little doing
09/18/1889: $2.00 @ 3.00
10/30/1889: $3.00 @ 3.50
11/13/1889: per doz., $3.00 @ 3.50
11/27/1889: $4.50
12/25/1889: $4.00

In February 1887, the market report included this admonishment: "Prairie chickens, quail and venison are out of season and it is contrary to the law for dealers to handle them. The law has never been very strictly enforced, and a good many dealers handle them after they are out of season."

Sharp-tailed Grouse: a dozen for $3, based upon a single known record from January 1887.

Northern Bobwhite (quail): usually available for $1 to $2.50 per dozen. From late-January to early March 1885, the low price was 50 to 75 cents. An exceptional price was $3 in mid-November 1888, and the only known instance of a $3 valuation.

Snipe, including the "jack snipe" which likely includes a variety of species, probably including various species of shorebirds as well as the Wilson's Snipe: the price varied from 50 cents to $1.50. An exceptional price was $3 at the end of April, 1884. Another significant price of $1.75 per dozen was reported in December 1887.

Plover: varied from 50 cents to $1.25 per dozen. Initially reported in April 1886 and through the end of 1889. There are no clues available for determining the particular species. Perhaps they included the Upland Sandpiper, Buff-breasted Sandpiper, golden plover, black-bellied plover and maybe even the Eskimo Curlew.

The local market was just one indication of the money paid for game birds. There was a national market, and a summary for a wide-variety of commodities including game, allows a comparison of Omaha prices to a summary indicated for other places. Though details are available yearly during the period, only a sample of dates are given in the following table.


Oct 1882

Nov 1885

Nov 1888


National *





Prairie chickens

$4 @ 4.50 **

$4 @ 4.25


$4.00 @ 4.50



- -

$1.25 @ 1.50

$1.00 @ 1.25

- -


Partridge (ruffed grouse)

- -

$3.00 @ 3.25

- -


- -

Snipe (including jack snipe)

$1 @ 1.50

$1.25 @ 1.40

$1.00 @ 1.25

$1 and common at 50c

- -

Plover (golden and grass)

- -

75c @ 1.25

- -

- -

- -


- -

- -

$2.75 @ 3.00; brant $2.25 @ 2.50

- -

- -

Mallard ducks


$1.75 @ 2.00

$2.25 @ 2.50

$3.00 @ 3.25

$2.50 @ 2.75

Wood ducks


- -

- -

- -

- -



$1.50 @ 1.75

$1.25 @ 1.50

$1.75 @ 2.00

$1.00 @ 1.25


- -

- -

- -

$1.50 @ 1.75

- -


- -

- -

- -


- -

Passenger pigeon

- -

$1.00 @ 1.25

- -

- -

- -

* National price quote summary as issued at Milwaukee.

** Price given is per dozen birds.

The national market report notably indicated the occurrence of a larger variety of species, especially denoting the Passenger Pigeon. There was a wide-spread network of commerce and obvious differences prevailed. It's readily apparent prairie chickens and teal at the Omaha market had a lesser price than elsewhere.


Hunting for the local, state and regional markets was an ongoing, successful endeavor, wherever game could be taken by shootists. Some people were concerned, and in particular, a report by Samuel G.V. "Sandy" Griswold, provides a perspective from the autumn of 1889. He was a prolific writer for the Omaha Bee, covering sports and other events, having arrived at the river city in the latter 1880s.

"Last fall I indulged in a three weeks' outing in the northwestern part of the State, and at no less than five different points on the B. & M. road did I visit the rendezvous of Eastern market-hunters, who have built permanent shipping establishments, with refrigerative annexes and shipping departments, and carry on their unlawful business regularly all the year round openly and defiantly. These shippers not only employ all the farmers' boys they can roundabout the country, but they bring in expert shots from the East, whom they pay a regular salary for their work in the field. Now is not this a sad commentary upon the laws of a great and progressive State like Nebraska; isn't it an unqualified disgrace and an outrage, and does it not call for a loud protest from every true sportsman in the State, and a vigorous remonstrance from all our lovers of nature? I think so."

The July, 1890, Griswold article started with this perspective:

"The various gun clubs of this city have concluded to call a special joint meeting to ascertain whether it is not possible to devise some ways and means of preventing the wholesale illegal killing of prairie chickens this season, and it is high time this very work was accomplished. The time will shortly arrive when the pot and market hunters will shoulder their blunderbusses and sally forth to the slaughter, and there is no time to be lost if anything is to be done toward the protection of this season's crop of birds."

There was concern, but game continued to be taken in quantities, however, and sold for a profit at the city markets. An article in an Omaha newspaper in December 1890 reported:

"The produce markets are beginning to herald the near approach of Christmas by their appetizing displays of edibles." ... "Hanging about the rooms quail, ducks and the prairie chicken promise a good dinner to the sportsmen who prefer the flavor of game. Rabbits and squirrel are plentiful, and antelope, deer and bear carcasses can be had at reasonable figures to help out the courses at dinner.

"The gobble of the live turkey and the clucking of the chickens are heard on all sides. Turkeys, ducks and geese are plentiful and prices are not high. A good fat turkey can be had for 90 cents to $1."

Game prices were at the time: prairie chickens: $3.75 - 4.00 a dozen; quail: $1.25 - 1.50 a dozen; mallard: $2.50 - 3.00 a dozen; teal $1.25 a dozen; and, mixed ducks $1.50 a dozen.

Meyer and Raapke Fancy Grocers, Omaha.

Game Sellers

Numerous retail establishments bought game from the wholesale market for resale to individual customers. There were several Omaha businesses known to sell game, especially near the end of this period and into the early 1890s, according to a book of pen sketches for the river city area. They included:

¶ Denton and Vogt, operated by L.W. Denton and Otto Vogt; established in 1882 by A.R. Kohr and Co.; store at 13th and Chicago Streets is "provided with all accessories in the way of cold storage."; deal in game in season.
¶ Grand Central Market, at 2204 and 2206 Farnam Street, telephone 1011. Opened in 1889 by Messrs. R.E. and J.U. Welch; the grocery and meat market "is elegantly fitted up with ash fixtures, marble top counters, cashier's desk, electric lights, etc., and is by far the most attractive establishment of its kind in the city."
¶ Paul Henni, at 730 Twenty-fourth Street in South Omaha, where they relocated to in 1891; established in 1886; "neatness and cleanliness are characteristics of the market" ... which features windows "tastefully dressed and attractive."
¶ Icken and Wohlers, operated by Messrs. G.W. Icken and Ed. J.H. Wohlers; located at 1205 Howard St. in 1892
¶ People's Cash Market, operated by Geo. W. Kurz; at 1714 Nicholas Street; ... "Mr Kurz places before his customers the very finest and choicest fresh beef" ... and ... "game when in season."
¶ Samuel Dreifuss purchased the business of Harris and Fisher in 1888, located at 1817 Dodge Street, but moved to 2010 Farnam Street in 1891; "makes a specialty of poultry and game, keeping all kinds in season."

These examples convey the extent to which local patrons could readily purchase wild game in the 1880s, including many different birds, when they were available during a season.

The taking of game for markets would continue to be prominent and well-known during the 1890s.